The proliferation of large-scale and multi-sourced data in the digital era provides great opportunities to engage in urban and transport enquiries at larger and finer scales. More data are generated from automobiles, smartphones, automatic fare systems, and other facilities at any moment. Human and natural phenomenon are being modelled with increasing precision and representativeness. Many previously unattainable research subjects and hypotheses are now being investigated by leveraging the big data. Patterns of human mobility and travel behaviour are identified along with their relationship with urban environment, which are of great significance to the field of transportation, urban planning, and urban science. At the same time, there are challenges in the application of big data including the lack of sociodemographic information, the complicated task of processing these massive and often flawed data, and the linkage between this new line of research and the classic theories in related fields.